“And one day we must ask the question, ‘Why are there forty million poor people in America ?’ And when you begin to ask that question, you are raising questions about the economic system, about a broader distribution of wealth. When you ask that question, you begin to question the capitalistic economy.” .. (Martin Luther King Jr.)
"As long as the problems of the poor are not radically resolved by rejecting the absolute autonomy of markets and financial speculation and by attacking the structural causes of inequality, no solution will be found for the world’s problems or, for that matter, to any problems. Inequality is the root of social ills." .. (Pope Francis)
F.B.I. Entraps Americans In String Operations
The US Justice Department and the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) have targeted American Muslims in abusive counterterrorism “sting operations” based on religious and ethnic identity. Many of the more than 500 terrorism-related cases prosecuted in US federal courts since September 11, 2001 have alienated the very communities that can help prevent terrorist crimes.
Here is a video of a mob of Israelis in Tel Aviv singing a lovely, racist chant on July 26, ‘14. There are English subtitles. For clarification, Tibi and Zoabi who are mentioned are two Palestinian citizens of Israel who are part of Israel’s parliament. Here are the words:
Tibi – Ahmed Tibi
I wanted you to know
The next kid to be hurt will be your kid
I hate Tibi
I hate Tibi the terrorist.
Tibi – is dead!
Tibi – is dead!
Tibi – is dead!
Tibi is a terrorist.
Tibi is a terrorist.
Tibi is a terrorist.
They’ll take their papers away.
They’ll take their papers away.
They’ll take their papers away.
Olé, olé, olé-olé-olé
In Gaza there’s no studying
No children are left there,
Olé, olé, olé-olé-olé,
[Three lines, not entirely clear]
Who is getting nervous, I hear?
Zoabi, this here is the Land of Israel
This here is the Land of Israel, Zoabi
This here is the Land of the Jews
I hate you, I do, Zoabi
I hate all the Arabs.
Gaza is a graveyard
Gaza is a graveyard
Gaza is a graveyard
Gaza is a graveyard
Travelers to Morocco often describe the stunning landscape with mountains, deserts, valleys, and uninterrupted miles of beaches on the Mediterranean and Atlantic coasts. What’s often overlooked is the way Black people are treated in the country.
In a 2010 Afrik-news.com article, author Smahane Bouyahia reports that Blacks in Morocco — natives, immigrants from elsewhere in Africa, and African-Americans — are often targets of racial discrimination.
“In Morocco, and north Africa, there is a serious problem of racism towards Black people. Called ‘Black Africans,’ they are considered descendants of slaves and labeled ‘hartani’—literally, ‘second-rate free men’—or even worse, ‘aâzi’—which translates to ‘bloody Negro.’ Blacks in Morocco, be they students, migrants from the south of the Sahara or others, are constant victims of discrimination,” Bouyahia wrote.
In 2012, French cable news channel, France 24, reported that a Moroccan newsweekly magazine published an article about sub-Saharan Africans coming into the country. The title of the article was “Le péril noir,” the black peril, or the black menace.
France 24 also displayed the cover page of another Moroccan magazine, written in Arabic, with an image of what appears to be African immigrants standing in front of a building under the title caption: “The black crickets invading Morocco’s north.”
One student highlighted in Bouyahia’s article described his experience studying in Morocco:
“Often, when I’m just walking down the street, people will call me a “dirty Black man” or call me a slave. Young Moroccans have physically assaulted me on several occasions, for no reason, and passers-by who saw this didn’t lift a finger to help me. All my friends are Black and they have all had similar experiences. Even the girls get insulted in the street. To avoid getting hurt, I now try to ignore the insults. But if someone starts to hit me, what can I do? I have to defend myself.”
Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi had for many years allowed guest workers to travel from all over Africa to find work in Libya. However, during the 2011 Libyan civil war, rumors began to surface that sub-Saharan mercenaries paid for by Gadhafi were being used to attack demonstrators in Libya’s towns and cities.
Although several NGOs found no evidence of such mercenaries, the rumors were followed by gruesome attacks on the country’s many Black African migrant workers. But animosity toward Black immigrants did not begin with the civil war.
Amnesty International researcher Diana Eltahawy said the rebels taking control of Libya tapped into “existing xenophobia.”
In his 2011 Thinkafricapress.com article, Beyond Mercenaries: Racism In North Africa, Tom Little writes:
“In spite of evidence showing widespread violence against migrant workers trying to escape the turmoil, the foreign press suggested that these attacks were regrettable but to be expected given the atrocities committed by [Gadhafi’s] mercenaries. Few, however, picked up on the fact that these attacks are symptomatic of a racial prejudice that is deeply rooted and widely spread throughout North Africa and the wider Arab world.”
While traveling in Egypt, its good to note that according to an article by Al Jazeera, Black Egyptians and immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa face daily incidents of racism and prejudice.
Reuters reporter Cynthia Johnston reports in her article, Egypt’s African Migrants Dodge Rocks, Fight Racism, that migrant workers from Burkina Faso, Ghana, Sudan, Cameroon, Niger and Chad have suffered daily abuse at the hands of Egyptian Arabs. Some have been stoned, shouted at, spat on and even stabbed at as they go about their business in the streets, according to her article.
Several media outlets reported a December 2005 incident, where Egyptian riot police brutally attacked a camp of Sudanese refugees in Cairo who were protesting their treatment. In front of television cameras, at least 23 refugees were killed, and hundreds of others were injured, arrested, imprisoned or deported. There was little public protest.
Black Africans report verbal harassment and negative language, such as being called “oonga boonga” or samara [black], as well as physical attacks in the streets by the public and even by Egyptian law enforcement officials, reports Michael Curtis, writer for Gatestone Institute, a New York international policy think tank.
Blacks are being stopped for random identity checks on the basis of skin color, and have faced arbitrary roundups, he continued.
In a 2011 article on Root.com, the author reports that southern Sudanese women are routinely targets of verbal public abuse. Carloads of Arab men drive by them, hanging out of windows, shouting catcalls, or making loud demands for sexual favors.
Although Nubians are among the indigenous inhabitants of what is now considered modern Egypt, they are not spared discrimination based on skin color.
Nada Zeitoun, a Nubian filmmaker from the upper Egyptian city of Aswan, was denied service at a pharmacy in central Cairo in 2013 because the pharmacist said he “didn’t accept money from Black hands.”
Since it gained its independence from France in 1960, Mauritania has struggled with ethnic tension between the Afro-Mauritanians and so-called Arab-Mauritanians.
In 1989, thousands of Black Mauritanians were forced to flee to neighboring Senegal and Mali. They were reportedly forcibly deported by the Mauritanian military, according to an interview given to NPR by Souleymane Sagna, an aid worker in the country.
“The situation of those Black Mauritania was quite particular, in that very often people are moving during a conflict, but in the case of the Negro Mauritanians, there have been many militarily deported through military trucks to Senegal and Mali,” she said.
Today, although Mauritania officially abolished slavery for a third time in 2007, making it punishable by up to ten years in prison, the practice still exists.
In the northwestern African country, Arab Muslims—called the Bidanes, still hold Haratine (enslaved Africans) as property. An estimated 90,000 Mauritanians remain essentially enslaved, as previously reported by Atlanta Blackstar.
Many migrants from sub-Saharan Africa moved to Libya to find jobs, but because of that country’s current crisis, more of them are making homes in other countries, such as Algeria.
In Algeria’s city of Boufarik, hundreds of migrants live in area known by locals as “the African camp” or “the camp of the Blacks.”
With the increase of sub-Saharan migrants in the country, Algerians are becoming openly racist, accusing them of being dirty, jobless and spreading diseases. Local media outlets are also playing an important role in the increase of racism against the migrants.
The daily Al-Fajr (The Dawn) published an article declaring, “Thousands of Africans invading the streets of the capital,” and blaming them for “spreading epidemics and other social ills, such as trafficking in counterfeit money.”
Tunisia, like its other Arabic neighbors in North Africa, has a significant Black population as well as migrant workers from sub-Saharan Africa, although their exact numbers are unknown. They are noticeably absent in up-and-coming neighborhoods, and are largely found living in cheap, overcrowded structures in run-down areas such as La Goulette.
In 2004, Tunisian journalist Affet Mosbah wrote for Jeune Afrique, describing the difficulties of being Black and Tunisian. She talked of the widespread custom of calling Black Arabs “oussif” or “abid,” Arabic terms that refer back to Black slaves common in the Middle East until the beginning of the 20th century.
Mosbah explained that this custom is so embedded in the culture that Tunisians call their Black friends by these offensive names, insensitive to how offensive they are.
The Number of People Enslaved
The number of people enslaved in “The Indian Ocean Slave Trade” has been a hotly debated topic, especially when the millions of Africans forced from their homelands are considered.
Some historians estimate that between A.D. 650 and 1900, 10 to 20 million people were enslaved by Arab slave traders. Others believe over 20 million enslaved Africans alone had been delivered through the trans-Sahara route alone to the Islamic world.
Dr. John Alembellah Azumah in his 2001 book, The Legacy of Arab-Islam in Africa estimates that over 80 million Black people more died en route.
Arab Enslavers Practiced Genetic Warfare
The Arab slave trade typically dealt in the sale of castrated male slaves. Black boys between the age of 8 and 12 had their scrotums and penises completely amputated to prevent them from reproducing. About six of every 10 boys bled to death during the procedure, according to some sources, but the high price brought by eunuchs on the market made the practice profitable.
Some men were castrated to be eunuchs in domestic service and the practice of neutering male slaves was not limited to only Black males. ”The calipha in Baghdad at the beginning of the 10th Century had 7,000 black eunuchs and 4,000 white eunuchs in his palace,” writes author Ronald Segal in his 2002 book, Islam’s Black Slaves: The Other Black Diaspora.
The Indian Ocean Slave Trade Inspired Arab Racism Toward Blacks
Its important to note that Arab is not a racial classification; an Arab is almost like an American in that people classified as Arab today could be Caucasian (white people), Asiatic or even Arabized Africans. In the beginning there was some level of mutual respect between the Blacks and the more lighter skinned Arabs. However, as Islam and the demand for enslaved Blacks grew, so did racism toward Africans.
As casual association with Black skin and slave began to be established, racist attitudes towards Blacks began to manifest in Arabic language and literature. The word for slave - Abid - became a colloquialism for African. Other words such as Haratin express social inferiority of Africans.
Arab Enslavers Targeted African Girls & Women For Rape
The Indian Ocean Slave trade dealt primarily with African women, maintaining a ratio of two women for each man. These women and young girls were used by Arabs and other Asians as concubines and menials.
A Muslim slaveholder was entitled by law to the sexual enjoyment of his slave women. Filling the harems of wealthy Arabs, African women bore them a host of children.
This abuse of African women would continue for nearly 1, 200 years.
The Indian Ocean Slave Trade Ushered in The Atlantic Slave Trade
The Arab slave trade in the 19th century was economically tied to the European trade of Africans. New opportunities of exploitation were provided by the transatlantic slave trade and this sent Arab slavers into overdrive.
The Portuguese (on the Swahili coast) profited directly and were responsible for a boom in the Arab trade. Meanwhile on the West African coast, the Portuguese found Muslim merchants entrenched along the African coast as far as the Bight of Benin. These European enslavers found they could make considerable amounts of gold transporting enslaved Africans from one trading post to another, along the Atlantic coast.
The Indian Ocean Slave Trade Sparked One of The Largest Slave Rebellions in History
The Zanj Rebellion took place near the city of Basra, located in present-day southern Iraq, over a period of fifteen years (A.D. 869–883). The insurrection is believed to have involved enslaved Africans (Zanj) who had originally been captured from the African Great Lakes region and areas further south in East Africa.
Basran landowners had brought several thousand East African Zanj people into southern Iraq to drain the salt marshes in the east. The landowners forced the Zanj, who generally spoke no Arabic, into heavy slave labor and provided them with only minimal subsistence. The harsh treatment sparked an uprising that grew to involve over 500,000 enslaved and free men who were imported from across the Muslim empire.
Muslim Enslavers Avoided Teaching Islam to Blacks to Justify Enslaving Them
According to some historians, Islam prohibited freeborn Muslims from being enslaved, so it was not in the interest for Arab slavers to convert enslaved Africans to the religion. Since converting enslaved Africans to Muslim would grant them more rights and reduce the potential reservoir of people to enslave, propagators of Islam often revealed a cautious attitude toward proselytizing Africans.
Still, if an African converted to Islam he was not guaranteed freedom nor did it confer freedom to their children. Only children of slaves or non-Muslim prisoners of war could become slaves, never a freeborn Muslim.
The Time Period
The Arab slave trade was the longest yet least discussed of the two major slave trades. It began in seventh century as Arabs and other Asians poured into northern and eastern Africa under the banner of Islam. The Arab trade of Blacks in Southeast Africa predates the European transatlantic slave trade by 700 years. Some scholars say the Arab slave trade continued in one form or another up until the 1960s, however, slavery in Mauritania was criminalized as recently as August 2007.
The Indian Ocean Slave Trade Allowed More Upward Mobility Than the European Slave Trade
Upward mobility within the ranks of Arab slaves was not rare. Tariq ibn Ziyad – who conquered Spain and whom Gibraltar was named after – was a slave of the emir of Ifriqiya, Musa bin Nusayr, who gave him his freedom and appointed him a general in his army.
Son of an enslaved Ethiopian mother, Antarah ibn Shaddād, also known as Antar, was an Afro-Arabic man who was originally born into slavery. He eventually became a well-known poet and warrior. Extremely courageous in battle, historians have dubbed him the “father of knighthood … [and] chivalry” and “the king of heroes.”
This kind of upward mobility did not occur in the European slavery system.
The Indian Ocean Slave Trade Was Not Limited To Africa or “Race”
One of the biggest differences between the Arab slave trade and European slaving was that the Arabs drew slaves from all racial groups. During the eighth and ninth centuries of the Fatimid Caliphate, most of the slaves were Europeans (called Saqaliba), captured along European coasts and during wars.
Aside from those of African origins, people from a wide variety of regions were forced into Arab slavery, including Mediterranean people; Persians; people from the Caucasus mountain regions (such as Georgia, Armenia and Circassia) and parts of Central Asia and Scandinavia; English, Dutch and Irish; and Berbers from North Africa.
Afro-Palestinians in what is now today The Occupied Palestinian Territories [The West Bank; The Gaza Strip] & Israel.
"I found these letters in the Israeli government archives during the Spring of 2013. Addressed to Israeli leaders, they are personal letters from private citizens, applauding their decision to deport "African Hebrew Israelites" from the country. There is nothing strange about the fact that U.S. citizens sent these letters to the Israeli government. What is notable is that the Israeli government kept these letters on file for over four decades. What purpose do these letters serve? Were they kept on record because they provide ideological support for the government’s [Anti-Black] policies? If so, the authors of these letters make for strange bedfellows, as their letters reveal them to be unapologetic racists. For decades the Israeli government did try to deport the African Hebrew Israelites, as these letter-writers urged them to do, and today it continues to persecute, incarcerate and deport as many [Non-Jewish “Black”] people as possible.”
— David Sheen
ALSO SEE: “FEELING THE HATE IN JERUSELAM ON THE EVE OF OBAMA’S CAIRO ADRESS”: http://this-is-not-humanity.tumblr.com/post/91688032313/feeling-the-hate-in-jeurulasem-on-the-eve-of
Anti-Black Racism In Iraq
Black Iraqis are an ethnic group that is descended from people of Black African (Zanj) heritage in Iraq. Most are found in the southern port city of Basra, with many speaking Arabic and adhering to Islam.There are more than 1.5 million - 2 million Afro-Iraqis.
Most Black Iraqis are descended from sailors and slaves who were brought from present-day Sudan and Ethiopia and elsewhere in East Africa. Zanzibar, an island of the coast of Tanzania gave the name Zanj to the descendants of these slaves. Slave trade begun by early Arab traders began in 9th century and lasted over millennium. Most of these slaves were imported to work in large dates and sugarcane plantations.
To protest their treatment, Zanj slaves from Basra staged a successful revolt against Baghdad the Muslim capital for 15 years (refer to Zanj Rebellion). During this period they created a city called Moktara. In 883, the Army from Baghdad was able to put the revolt down. Afterwards, locals did not engage in large-scale plantation-type slavery. Slavery lasted up until the 19th century. However, there were reports of dark-skinned slaves in Iraq in 2008.
How Are Afro-descent People (“The Siddi”) Are Treated In India?
The Siddi (Urdu: شیدی ; Kannada: ಸಿದ್ಧಿಗಳು; Hindi, Marathi, Konkani: सिद्दी or शीदि/ಸಿದ್ಧಿ; Sindhi: شيدي; Gujarati: સીદી), also known as Siddhi, Sheedi, Habshi or Makrani, are an ethnic group inhabiting India and Pakistan. Members are descended from Bantu peoples from Southeast Africa that were brought to the Indian subcontinent as slaves by Arab and Portuguese merchants. The Siddi community is currently estimated at around 20,000–55,000 individuals, with Karnataka, Gujarat and Hyderabad in India and Makran and Karachi in Pakistan as the main population centres. Siddis are primarily Sufi Muslims, although some are Hindus and others Roman Catholic Christians.
The Black Pakistanis
The Siddi (Urdu: شیدی ; Kannada: ಸಿದ್ಧಿಗಳು; Hindi, Marathi, Konkani: सिद्दी or शीदि/ಸಿದ್ಧಿ; Sindhi: شيدي; Gujarati: સીદી), also known as Siddhi, Sheedi, Habshi or Makrani, are an ethnic group inhabiting India and Pakistan. Members are descended from Bantu peoples from Southeast Africa that were brought to the Indian subcontinent as slaves by Arab and Portuguese merchants.The Siddi community is currently estimated at around 20,000–55,000 individuals, with Karnataka, Gujarat and Hyderabad in India and Makran and Karachi in Pakistan as the main population centres.Siddis are primarily Sufi Muslims, although some are Hindus and others Roman Catholic Christians.
Th Face Of Afro-Turks
Afro-Iranian Lives [Documentary About Afro-Iranians]
Afro-Iranians (also known as African Iranians) (Persian: ایرانیان آفریقاییتبار) are people of Black African descent residing in Iran. Most Afro-Iranians are concentrated in Hormozagan, Sistan and Baluchestan and Khuzestan.
The Indian Ocean slave trade was multi-directional and changed over time. To meet the demand for menial labor, black slaves captured by Arab slave traders were sold in cumulatively large numbers over the centuries to the Persian Gulf, Egypt, Arabia, India, the Far East, the Indian Ocean islands, Ethiopia, and Somalia.