Humans share biological markers with friends much as we do with extended family members, says a scientific study
Friends often look alike. The tendency of people to forge friendships with people of a similar appearance has been noted since the time of Plato. But now there is research suggesting that, to a striking degree, we tend to pick friends who are genetically similar to us in ways that go beyond superficial features.
For example, you and your friends are likely to share genes associated with the sense of smell.
Our friends are as similar to us genetically as you’d expect fourth cousins to be, according to the study published this month in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. This means that the number of genetic markers shared by two friends is akin to what would be expected if they had the same great-great-great-grandparents.
"Your friends don’t just resemble you superficially, they resemble you genetically," said Nicholas Christakis, a physician and social scientist at Yale University and a co-author of the study… (Full article from The Guardian)

Humans share biological markers with friends much as we do with extended family members, says a scientific study

Friends often look alike. The tendency of people to forge friendships with people of a similar appearance has been noted since the time of Plato. But now there is research suggesting that, to a striking degree, we tend to pick friends who are genetically similar to us in ways that go beyond superficial features.

For example, you and your friends are likely to share genes associated with the sense of smell.

Our friends are as similar to us genetically as you’d expect fourth cousins to be, according to the study published this month in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. This means that the number of genetic markers shared by two friends is akin to what would be expected if they had the same great-great-great-grandparents.

"Your friends don’t just resemble you superficially, they resemble you genetically," said Nicholas Christakis, a physician and social scientist at Yale University and a co-author of the study… (Full article from The Guardian)

Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors
Memories may be passed down through generations in DNA in a process that may be the underlying cause of phobias 
Memories can be passed down to later generations through genetic switches that allow offspring to inherit the experience of their ancestors, according to new research that may explain how phobias can develop. Scientists have long assumed that memories and learned experiences built up during a lifetime must be passed on by teaching later generations or through personal experience. However, new research has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. Researchers at the Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, found that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. The results may help to explain why people suffer from seemingly irrational phobias – it may be based on the inherited experiences of their ancestors.
(via Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors - Telegraph)

Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors

Memories may be passed down through generations in DNA in a process that may be the underlying cause of phobias

Memories can be passed down to later generations through genetic switches that allow offspring to inherit the experience of their ancestors, according to new research that may explain how phobias can develop. Scientists have long assumed that memories and learned experiences built up during a lifetime must be passed on by teaching later generations or through personal experience. However, new research has shown that it is possible for some information to be inherited biologically through chemical changes that occur in DNA. Researchers at the Emory University School of Medicine, in Atlanta, found that mice can pass on learned information about traumatic or stressful experiences – in this case a fear of the smell of cherry blossom – to subsequent generations. The results may help to explain why people suffer from seemingly irrational phobias – it may be based on the inherited experiences of their ancestors.

(via Phobias may be memories passed down in genes from ancestors - Telegraph)

Can’t resist cooing over pictures of baby animals? Blame evolution…
There is an obvious evolutionary explanation as to why we are drawn to human young - they need looking after or our species will die out.
But why do we have the feeling towards most baby mammals?
Nobel prize-winning Austrian academic Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989), who studied the evolutionary and adaptive significance of human behaviours - human ethology - pointed out many animals, for reasons entirely unrelated to enticing humans to be their caregivers, possess some features also shared by human babies but not adults: Large eyes, snub nose, bulging forehead and retreating chin.
Lorenz believed we are tricked by an evolved response to human young and we transfer our reaction to the same set of features in other mammals.
Anthropologist Andrew Marlow argues this reaction boils down to the way we, as humans, develop.
He suggests the bar for triggering the nurturing impulse is very low in humans, because human babies are ill-equipped to survive and need an enormous amount of looking after.
"It is partly an evolutionary battle between the pelvis and the cranium," said Dr Marlow.
"We are the only animal which walks exclusively on two legs. It freed our arms for using tools, weapons and gathering food. But the trade-off is that to accommodate our bipedalism, pelvises shifted position and became narrower.
A modern woman is not physically capable of giving birth to anything larger than the head of a baby. Therefore the human brain has to develop a lot after birth, rather than in utero. Human babies are very vulnerable.”
Lorenz pointed out we judge the appearance of other animals by the same criteria as we judge our own - although the judgment may be utterly inappropriate in an evolutionary context.
(Read the full article )

Can’t resist cooing over pictures of baby animals? Blame evolution…

There is an obvious evolutionary explanation as to why we are drawn to human young - they need looking after or our species will die out.

But why do we have the feeling towards most baby mammals?

Nobel prize-winning Austrian academic Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989), who studied the evolutionary and adaptive significance of human behaviours - human ethology - pointed out many animals, for reasons entirely unrelated to enticing humans to be their caregivers, possess some features also shared by human babies but not adults: Large eyes, snub nose, bulging forehead and retreating chin.

Lorenz believed we are tricked by an evolved response to human young and we transfer our reaction to the same set of features in other mammals.

Anthropologist Andrew Marlow argues this reaction boils down to the way we, as humans, develop.

He suggests the bar for triggering the nurturing impulse is very low in humans, because human babies are ill-equipped to survive and need an enormous amount of looking after.

"It is partly an evolutionary battle between the pelvis and the cranium," said Dr Marlow.

"We are the only animal which walks exclusively on two legs. It freed our arms for using tools, weapons and gathering food. But the trade-off is that to accommodate our bipedalism, pelvises shifted position and became narrower.

A modern woman is not physically capable of giving birth to anything larger than the head of a baby. Therefore the human brain has to develop a lot after birth, rather than in utero. Human babies are very vulnerable.”

Lorenz pointed out we judge the appearance of other animals by the same criteria as we judge our own - although the judgment may be utterly inappropriate in an evolutionary context.

(Read the full article )

Honor Diaries [Exclusive Extended-Clip]:

Honor Diaries is a 2013 documentary film by producer Paula Kweskin. Honor Diaries explores violence against women in honor-based societies, with particular focus on female genital mutilation (FGM), honor violence and honor killings, early and forced marriage, and lack of access to education. The film profiles nine women’s rights activists with origins in the Muslim (and non-Muslim) world, and follows their efforts to affect change, both within their communities and beyond.

thejourneyofkarbala:

Yazidi Member of Iraqi Parliament collapses in tears after calling upon World to Rescue the Yazidis!

STOP IGNORING THE IRAQI PEOPLE! THEY ARE BEING KILLED IN SILENCE! SPEAK UP!

We the undersigned Palestinian individuals and groups express our solidarity with the family of Michael Brown, a young unarmed black man gunned down by police on August 9th in Ferguson, Missouri. We wish to express our support and solidarity with the people of Ferguson who have taken their…

libertariantimes:

Militarized U.S. police face-off with Ferguson protesters

Images coming from a tense Ferguson, Missouri this week show local police armed to the teeth and appearing as an occupying force in attempts to suppress citizen outrage over the fatal shooting of an unarmed African-American teenager by a police officer.

http://rt.com/usa/180448-ferguson-police-shooting-protest/

This world was not created piecemeal. Africa was born no later and no earlier than any other geographical area on this globe. Africans, no more and no less than other men, possess all human attributes, talents and deficiencies, virtues and faults.
Haile Selassie
We invisibilize black women when we narrowly equate black men as representative of black people; when we focus on the criminalization of black men as if this is the only narrative of criminalization; and when we enable or participate in the collective amnesia that most black women NOT ONLY die as a result of the deadly combination of gender and racial profiling at the hands of private citizens and law enforcement agencies, but also from the hands of our black partners and family members.
Police Brutality Is “Gender-Neutral”: Unarmed Black Girls And Women Murdered By Police

Racial-Profiling, Police-Brutality, and the Murders of Black boys and men by Police is often a topic discussed when brining up the topic of White-Supremacy in the U.S. While often never talked about in Pop Culture and Media, is at that Black girls and women, are also often victims of Racial-Profiling, Police-Brutality and Murder by Police-Officers.

Here are a few of the girls and women whose lives ended due to Police-Violence in the U.S.:

Shelly Frey

In what certainly appears like a case of “not necessary,” 27-year-old Shelly Frey was shot and killed by an off-duty deputy after he suspected the Houston mother of two had shoplifted.

Frey was reportedly perusing the Walmart with friends Tiasa Andrews and Yolanda Craig when Louis Campbell, a 26-year veteran of the force, approached the ladies about shoplifting. The trio then ran off into the parking lot where Campbell followed them. The chase escalated to the point that Frey got into her car to speed away and Campbell followed. Shortly after, he fired, striking Fey in the neck. He claims that he eventually drew his gun because he was “between the car door and the driver’s seat and feared for his safety.”

But considering that Frey was not armed herself, her mother has a pretty reasonable response:

“Why couldn’t you just shoot the tire, shoot the window?” she asked. “Was it that serious?”

Even if her daughter did commit a crime, Wilkerson said she did not deserve to die—or for her two young grandchildren to lose their mother.

Bear in mind, too, that there were two young children in the car that Frey hopped into — although reportedly not her own.

Shereese Francis

shereese_francis_2.jpg

Shereese_Francis_Death_Certificate_COD.jpgShereese Francis’s sister had no idea that her attempt to help her sister would get her family member killed. On March 15, 2012, Shauna Francis called New York’s information hotline to get advice on how to best get her sister to the hospital. Shereese, she explained, was schizophrenic and had stopped taking her medication. After a transfer to an emergency line, Shauna was told that someone was on their way to her sister’s house to help. While officers on the scene grabbed Shereese, handcuffed her, and held her facedown into a mattress, the woman stopped breathing. The medical examiner ruled the death a homicide, writing that Francis died from “compression of trunk during agitated violent behavior (schizophrenia) while prone on bed and attempted restraint by police officers.” Shereese was 30 years old.

Alesia Thomas

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At least five Los Angeles Police officers are being investigated after 35-year-old Alesia Thomas died in police custody.

Rekia Boyd

rekia

Rekia Boyd was only 22 years old when an off-duty police officer named Dante Servin killed her in a park in March 2012. During an evening hanging out with her friends, an unmarked car pulled up and the man inside told them to “shut up.” The officer then begin shooting at the four people, hitting Boyd in the head and killing her instantly. He continued to work on duty with the Chicago Police department until charges were officially filed on November 25, 2013. One witness claims that the officer was inebriated at the time.


Kendra James
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 kendra james, they say you were a crack addict...
Kendra James was a 21-year-old African-American Oregon woman who was shot to death by police on May 5, 2003. The incident sparked a controversy over the use of deadly force by the Portland Police Bureau in Portland, Oregon.

Miriam Carey

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An autopsy report, made public six months after Miriam Carey was shot dead after a car chase, with the Washington Police, from the White House to the Capitol, revealed that the 34-year-old woman was struck by five bullets from behind.

Tyisha Miller

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Tyisha Miller (1979-1998) was an African American woman from Rubidoux, California. She was shot dead by police officers called by family members who could not wake her as she lay unconscious in a car. The incident sparked demonstrations and protests amid claims of police racism. The officers involved were fired from Riverside Police Department but did not face prosecution due to insufficient evidence.

Yvette Smith

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Police claimed that they were responding to a disturbance at a home early on Sunday morning, February 16. When Yvette Smith opened the door, police began to shoot at her. At first, police officers said they shot at Smith because she was brandishing a gun, but changed their story when no weapon was found on the scene. During the investigation of Smith’s killing, the officers and their supervisors were punished for altering their own training records following the incident. Perhaps ironic to some, Smith was killed on Zimmerman Avenue. She was a single mother with two sons. 

Aiyanna Jones

Aiyana Jones.jpg

Aiyana Mo’Nay Stanley Jones, was a seven-year-old girl from the East Side of Detroit, Michigan who was shot and killed during a raid conducted by the Detroit Police Department’s Special Response Team on May 16, 2010.Her death drew national media attentio and led U.S. Representative John Conyers to ask U.S. Attorney General Eric Holder for a federal investigation into the incident.

Tarika Wilson

 A SWAT team arrived at Ms. Wilson’s rented house in the Southside neighborhood early in the evening of Jan. 4 to arrest her companion, Anthony Terry, on suspicion of drug dealing, said Greg Garlock, Lima’s police chief. Officers bashed in the front door and entered with guns drawn, said neighbors who saw the raid.

Moments later, the police opened fire, killing Ms. Wilson, 26, and wounding her 14-month-old son, Sincere, Chief Garlock said. One officer involved in the raid, Sgt. Joseph Chavalia, a 31-year veteran, has been placed on paid administrative leave.

Black people in Lima, from the poorest citizens to religious and business leaders, complain that rogue police officers regularly stop them without cause, point guns in their faces, curse them and physically abuse them. They say the shooting of Ms. Wilson is only the latest example of a long-running pattern of a few white police officers treating African-Americans as people to be feared. 

 Adaisha Miller
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"They were having a party and the next thing, a woman is dead. He’s  devastated by what happened," lawyer John Goldpaugh told The Detroit  Free Press after having spent time with the officer in question.

While the police have said that Ms. Miller hugged the officer from behind, her mother was told by friends that her daughter ‘was being a little flirty’ with the man and hugged him face-to-face.

An autopsy performed on Monday showed that she died as a result of a single gunshot wound, and the initial police investigation ruled the shooting  accidental.

That said, her death has been classified as a homicide..

Ms Miller graduated from Redford High School in Detroit before going to  Everest College in California to receive her degree in massage therapy.

"All she wanted to do was enjoy the weekend for her birthday," her mother said.

"She had every right to enjoy turning 25 and look beyond that."

Sharmel Edwards (Las Vegas, Nevada)

On the evening of April 20, 2012, Sharmel Edwards—whose photo has never been released—went on what her boyfriend described as a romantic date. Later that evening, he woke up and discovered that the 49-year-old woman had gone on a late-night drive. He called the police and reported that she was driving his car “without his permission.” He also reported that he kept a gun in the car’s console. Officers pursued Edwards, calling in a SWAT team for back-up. Multiple witnesses claim that she exited the car with her hands up and unarmed, while the police and others claim she was holding a gun. A total of five officers fired at least 15 bullets at the woman with three handguns, a rifle, and a shotgun. The gun in the car Edwards was driving was never fired.

Shantel Davis

shantel

The police argue that they were killing a car thief out on bail when they shot 23-year-old Shantel Davis in June 2012. But she was unarmed and trying to flee when a police officer shot her point-blank in the chest. At the time, the officer who killed her had been a defendant in six federal lawsuits. A witness recalled hearing Davis screaming “I don’t want to be killed, don’t kill me!” right before the gun went off.

Darnesha Harris

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A community up in arms over the death of 17 year old Darnesha Harris. According to the police, Harris struck the front of the officer’s unit with her vehicle, then placed it in reverse, striking another parked vehicle on the roadway.  After hitting the parked car, Harris drove forward, traveled through a ditch, and struck a bystander and another parked vehicle.  In response, one of the responding officers exited his vehicle and fired multiple shots. Harris was transported to a hospital and later died as a result of her injuries.  The bystander was transported to a local hospital with moderate injuries. Trooper Hammons says there are many witnesses to this with different versions of what took place, but nothing will be released until proven factual. Investigators are focusing on the vehicle belonging to Harris to see at what angle the shots were fired, and if Harris was in possession of a weapon.  Harris was in the vehicle at the time the shots were fired.  No officers on the scene were injured by the collision, and the bystander that was struck is a potential witness so his identity will not be released for his protection.

SEE: http://www.rolereboot.org/culture-and-politics/details/2014-08-black-unarmed-women-girls-without-weapons-killed-law-enforcement/

rhomeporium:

A mother’s worst nightmare.

'The Arab World', whilst rightly calling out [Israeli] racism, needs to speak against it's own racism against Black Africans. If they want to further the bonds of solidarity and call us to action regarding [Jewish Anti-Arabism] in Palestine then why the Arab silence regarding the lynchings, rapes and ethnic cleansing by the Nato stooge “rebels” in Libya? One can also mention Sudan, Mauritania, and much of the Sahel region where racist Arab-Supremacist attitudes — including slavery — are very much at large. BDS against Apartheid Israel, by all means, but let us ask why so many in 'The Arab World' are silent about their racism to the Black Africans? No Black person now is safe in any [North African] country.
The Forgotten Genocide

Unabated hate speech and violence against Roma is a dark reminder of Europe’s past and a worrying sign for its future.

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On August 2, 1944, 2,897 Roma and Sinti, men, women, and children incarcerated in Auschwitz-Birkenau were loaded onto trucks, transported to gas chamber V, and liquidated as part of Hitler’s genocide. All of them were killed in a matter of hours, their bodies then disposed of in the crematorium. Upon the liberation of Auschwitz by western forces in 1945, there were no Roma or Sinti among the survivors.

Today, Roma all over the world commemorate the Porajmos (Romanes for “the Devouring”) in which hundreds of thousands of Roma and Sinti were exterminated. For years, Roma have been advocating for the official recognition of August 2 as a Memorial Day of the Romani Genocide.

For decades, the German authorities and other institutions refused to recognise that the Roma were victims of a genocide, specifically targeted by the Nazis for extermination as “racially inferior” and “enemies of the race-based state”. While the historical record is not disputed, for many years there was no political will to recognise the obvious.

This lack of recognition had direct consequences for Romani survivors in Europe. The West German government only recognised the racially based nature of the killings of Roma in 1982; due to the delay, many of the survivors died before receiving compensation that the government had made available to other victims.

Why is it important that we acknowledge the genocide against the Roma? Roma organisations hope that the commemoration of the Porajmos will raise awareness of the reality Roma face today, which is characterised by discrimination, marginalisation and violence.

There is no group in Europe that is targeted with more ferocity than the Roma and none that faces more exclusion and discrimination. Roma all over Europe are exposed to hate speech and violence. Politicians throughout Europe target them as scapegoats for the ills of the society at large. In recent years, a stunning number of high-level, “mainstream” politicians (including the former president of France, a former foreign minister of Romania, a former justice minister of Denmark, a former prime minister of Italy and a UK MP) have spoken of Roma as predisposed to crime.

The echoes of Nazi Germany are chilling: They could have been quoting Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, who published similar racist remarks in 1938. Other public figures have gone even further: In France a mayor suggested that Hitler "did not kill enough" Roma. In Hungary, a leading journalist and co-founder of the ruling Fidesz Party, published an op-ed calling Roma “animals” that “need to be eliminated” “right now by any means”. Extremist groups in Hungary, the Czech Republic and elsewhere deliberately adopt Nazi tropes and tactics; for example, conducting jackbooted marches through Romani communities carrying flaming torches.

While states pledge support for Roma integration in international forums, state policies and practices at home have produced increasingly segregated societies. Physical walls have been built in Slovakia, Romania, and elsewhere to separate Roma communities from the main population. Romani families have been routinely evicted from city centres in France, Italy, Romania, Serbia, and Bulgaria. A Hungarian city recently offered to pay Roma tenants to leave their rental homes on condition that they agree to settle only outside the city.

Romani children continue to face segregation in schools, including tracking into special education. Such segregation, coupled with racist speech, leads to dehumanisation and creates a climate that enables violence, examples of which are all too common, such as the ethnically motivated killing of six Roma including a four year-old boy in Hungary five years ago, or the recent brutal beating of a young Roma boy in France.

"Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it." This quote from Santayana is frequently cited to demonstrate the value of analysing and commemorating the difficult past. Commemorating the Roma genocide serves as a tribute to the victims as well as a testament to the strength of the survivors. But mere recollection of an historical tragedy will not undo the widespread anti-Roma racism of today. Stopping hate speech, hate crimes, and institutionalised racism is the responsibility of everyone, from those in the highest positions of power right down to the person on the street.

So in addition to this symbolic step of commemoration, this anniversary of the Roma genocide is a fitting time for leaders throughout Europe to make a simple pledge: that of zero tolerance for anti-Roma hate speech. Public officials or political party leaders who make anti-Roma statements - tarring all Roma as criminals or inciting people to violence against Roma - should be forced to resign from their positions. No exceptions. This by itself will not solve the “Roma problem”, but it would be refreshing indeed if the leaders of Europe would exercise some real leadership.

SOURCE: http://www.aljazeera.com/indepth/opinion/2014/07/forgotten-genocide-201473182154796343.html

SEE: http://this-is-not-humanity.tumblr.com/post/70037094079/a-people-uncounted-2011-official-trailer-an

SEE: http://this-is-not-humanity.tumblr.com/post/76225222028/human-rights-here-roma-rights-now-video-to